Grammar Reference

Grammar Reference and Review for Midterms and Exams

Midterm, Quarter 1
Exam, Quarter 2
Midterm, Quarter 3
Exam, Quarter 4

Year 7 Quarter 1 Midterm Units 1-3

Unit 1

Present simple (positive and negative; questions and short answers)

1. We use the present simple for actions that happen repeatedly or habitually.

Sally often goes to the swimming pool. We have breakfast at 7:30 every morning.

We also use the present simple for things that are always or normally true.

Apples grow on trees. He lives in Italy.

2. With most subjects, the present simple is the same as the base form of the verb. However, with a third person singular subject (he, she, it), the verb has an s ending.

I play tennis on Fridays. She plays tennis on Fridays.
My parents work in London. My brother works in London.

If a verb ends with sh, ch, ss or x, we add es.

he washes she catches he misses she fixes

If a verb ends with consonant + y, we change the y to i and add es. she studies he worries

3. The negative of the present simple is formed with don’t (do not) or doesn’t (does not) + base form of the verb.

I don’t like fish. She doesn’t like fish.
Students don’t wear uniforms. Jack doesn’t wear a uniform.

4. Present simple questions and short answers are formed with do or does.

Do you like cats? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.
Do they play the guitar? Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.
Does Silvia live here? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.

like + -ing

1. After verbs of liking and not liking we often use verb + -ing.

We love going to the cinema. My parents hate going to the supermarket.
My sister enjoys watching videos at home. I don’t like doing my homework.

2. If a verb ends in e, we drop the e before adding -ing.

live — living
ride — riding

If a short verb ends in 1. vowel + 1. consonant, we double the final consonant before adding -ing. We do the same if the verb ends in 1. vowel + 1.

get — getting
shop — shopping
travel — travelling

Unit 2

Present continuous for activities happening now

1. We use the present continuous for actions that are happening now or around the time of speaking.

My brothers are watching a video at the moment. It’s raining now.

2. The present continuous is formed with the present simple of be + verb + ing.

I’m enjoying this book. I’m not enjoying this book.
You’re working very hard! You aren’t working very hard.
Alison is listening to the radio. Alison isn’t listening to the radio.

3. The question is formed with the present simple of be + subject + verb + ing.

Is Carlo reading? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.
Are the girls having lunch? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
What are you doing?
Why is she laughing?

Present simple vs. present continuous

1. Time expressions for repeated actions are often used with the present simple.

every day, on Mondays, at the weekend, usually, sometimes, often never

Time expressions for present or temporary actions are often used with the present continuous.

at the moment, this weekend, right now, today, tonight, this afternoon

2. Some verbs aren’t normally used in the continuous form. Here are some common examples: believe, know, understand, remember, want, need, mean, like, hate…

I remember you. We need some milk. David loves pasta.

Unit 3

Past simple: be

1. We use the past simple to talk about actions and events in the past.

2. The past simple of be is was/wasn’t or were/weren’t.

I was in town yesterday. My sister wasn’t with me.
We were at a friend’s house last night. We watched some videos but they weren’t very good.

3. Questions with was/were are formed by putting the verb before the subject.

Were you in the park yesterday? Was James with you?

Past simple: regular verbs

1. In the past simple, regular verbs have an ed ending. The form is the same for all subjects.

I walked to the park. You played well yesterday.
Carla opened the window. It started to rain in the afternoon.

If a verb ends in e, we add only d.

like — liked
hate — hated
use — used

If a verb ends with consonant + y, we change the y to i and add ed.

study — studied
try — tried
marry — married

If a short verb ends in 1. vowel +1. consonant, we double the final consonant before adding ed. We do the same if the verb ends in 1. vowel + I.

stop — stopped
plan — planned
travel — travelled

2. The negative of the past simple is formed with didn’t (did not) + base form of the verb. The form is the same for all subjects.

I didn’t like the film last night. He didn’t study very hard.
We didn’t walk to school. The bus didn’t stop for me.

3. Past time expressions are often used with the past simple.

yesterday, yesterday morning, last night, last week, a month ago, two years ago, on Sunday

(Return to Top)

 Year 7 Quarter 2 Exam Units 4-6

Unit 4

Past simple: irregular verbs

A lot of common verbs are irregular. This means that the past simple form is different — they don’t have the usual ed ending.

go — went
see — saw
eat — ate
think — thought

There is a list of irregular verbs on page 127 of the Student’s Book.

Past simple: questions and short answers

Present simple questions and short answers are formed with did. The form is the same for regular and irregular verbs.

Did you talk to Barbara this morning? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
Did they play tennis yesterday? Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t.
Did Bruno go home after the party? Yes, he did. / No, he didn’t.

Unit 5

have to/don’t have to

1. We use have to to say that it is necessary or very important to do something.

I’m late — I have to go now. We have to be at school at 8.30.

With a third person singular subject (he, she, it), we use has to.

Jimmy is very ill — he has to stay in bed. My mother has to go to London tomorrow for a meeting.

2. We use the negative form don’t/doesn’t have to to say that it isn’t necessary or important to do something.

It’s early, so I don’t have to hurry.
Diana doesn’t have to get up early on Sundays.

3. Questions are formed with do or does.

Do I have to go to school? Does he have to pay?

4. The past form is had to / didn’t have to. The form is the same for all subjects. Joanna had to go to the dentist last week.

Yesterday was a holiday, so we didn’t have to go to school.
Did you have to do the ironing last night?

5. All forms of have to are followed by the base form of the verb.

Unit 6

Countable and uncountable nouns

1. Nouns in English are countable or uncountable. Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form.

car — cars
house — houses
apple — apples
question — questions
man — men
woman — women
child — children
person — people

2. Uncountable nouns don’t have a plural form. They are always singular.

food, music, money, rice, bread, information

This food is horrible. This information is wrong.

3. Sometimes a noun can be countable or uncountable, depending on its meaning in the sentence.

I like coffee. (uncountable)
I’d like two coffees, please. (= two cups of coffee, countable)

She’s got some chocolate. (uncountable)
She’s got a box of chocolates. (= individual ones, countable)

a/an and some

1. With singular countable nouns, we can use a/an to indicate an unspecific thing or person.

They live in a flat. He’s carrying an umbrella.

With plural countable nouns, we use some.

I want to buy some eggs. You’ve got some interesting CDs.

2. With uncountable nouns, we don’t use a/an — we use some.

Let’s have some bread. We need some information.

much and many

1. We use many with plural countable nouns and much with uncountable nouns.

Countable

She doesn’t eat many vegetables.
How many children have they got?

Uncountable

How much time have we got?
He doesn’t eat much fruit.

2. We usually use many and much in negative sentences and questions.

I don’t go to many concerts. He doesn’t listen to much music.
How many sandwiches do you want? How much homework have you got?

In positive sentences, we normally use a lot of or lots of.

Chris has got lots of / a lot of books.
The teacher always gives us lots of/ a lot of homework.

some and any

1. We use some and any with plural nouns and uncountable nouns.

some apples some food some books some information
any apples any food any books any information

2. We use some for an unspecific number or amount. We normally use some in positive sentences.

I bought some apples at the supermarket. I’m going to buy some food.
There were some books on the floor. I need some information.

3. We normally use any in negative sentences and questions.

There weren’t any books in the room. They didn’t give me any information.
Have you got any apples? Is there any food in the fridge?

(Return to Top)

 Year 7 Quarter 3 Midterm Unit 8-9

Unit 8

Present continuous for future arrangements

1. We can use the present continuous to talk about things that are planned or arranged for the future.

I’m travelling to Italy next week.
We’re having a party on Saturday.
Alan is meeting Judy at the airport tomorrow morning.

2. Future time expressions are often used with the present continuous for arrangements.

Tomorrow, tomorrow night, next week, next Sunday evening
the day after tomorrow, the week after next, in three hours’ time

3. For information on the form of the present continuous, see the notes on Unit 2.

Unit 9

will/won’t

1. We use will (’ll) and won’t to make predictions about the future.

When I’m older, I’ll live in France. I won’t live in England.
I’m sure you’ll pass the test tomorrow. The questions won’t be very difficult.
In the future, people will travel to Mars. But people won’t live on Mars.

2. Will is a modal (see also must, Unit 11. and should, Unit 13). We use will/won’t + base form of the verb, and the form is the same for all subjects. We don’t use any form of do in the negative.

You’ll pass the test. You won’t pass the test.
He’ll pass the test. He won’t pass the test.
Most students will pass the test. Most students won’t pass the test.

3. Questions are formed with will + subject + base form of the verb. Again, we don’t use any form of do in questions or short answers.

Will Sonia go to university? Yes, she will. / No, she won’t.
Will your brothers come to the party? Yes, they will. / No, they won’t.

When will the letter arrive?

(Return to Top)

Year 7 Quarter 4 Exam Units 10, 13

Unit 10

too + adjective

1. The adverb too + adjective has a negative meaning — when we use too, we mean ‘more than is good’ or ‘more than I want’.

I’ve only got £300, and the CD player costs £450. It’s too expensive.
It’s only 5° today. I don’t want to go out — it’s too cold.

2. Compare too with very, which doesn’t have a negative meaning.

This computer costs £3,000 — its very expensive. But I’ve got lots of money, so for me it isn’t too expensive.

Adverbs

1. Adverbs usually go with verbs — they describe an action.

We walked home slowly. The train arrived late.
Drive carefully!

Some adverbs can also go with adjectives.

It was bitterly cold yesterday. I get extremely nervous before an exam.
The house was beautifully warm inside.

2. A lot of adverbs are formed by adjective + ly.

quiet — quietly
bad — badly
polite — politely

If the adjective ends in le, we drop the e and add y.

terrible — terribly
comfortable — comfortably

If the adjective ends in consonant + y, we change the y to i and add ly.

easy — easily
happy — happily
lucky — luckily

3. Some adverbs are irregular — they don’t have an ly ending.

good — well
fast — fast
hard — hard
early — early
late — late

Our team played well on Saturday. They worked hard all day. Susie can run fast.

Unit 13

should/shouldn’t

1. When we want to say that something is a good idea (or is not a good idea), we can use should or shouldn’t.

I should work this evening. (I think this is a good idea for me.)
They shouldn’t buy that computer. (I think this is a bad idea for them.)
Should we go home now? (Do you think this is a good idea for us?)

2. Should is another modal, like will and must. We use should/shouldn’t + base form of the verb, and the form is the same for all subjects. We don’t use any form of do in the negative.

I should lose some weight. I shouldn’t eat this chocolate.
You should come to the cinema with us. You shouldn’t stay at home on your own.

3. Questions are formed with will + subject + base form of the verb. Again, we don’t use any form of do in questions or short answers.

Should we wait for Lisa? Yes, we should. / No, we shouldn’t.
Should I tell my parents? Yes, you should. / No, you shouldn’t.

What’s it like?

1. We use a form of the question What’s it like? if we want to hear a description or opinion of something/ somebody. The answer to this question will often contain adjectives.

What’s she like? She’s an interesting person and she’s very intelligent
What are your neighbours like? They’re OK. They’re polite but they’re not very friendly.

(Return to Top)

Year 8 Quarter 1 Midterm Units 1-3

Unit 1

Past continuous

1. We use the past continuous to talk about actions in progress at a certain time in the past.

In 1999, we were living in the USA. The television was on, but I wasn’t watching it.

2. The past continuous is formed with the past simple of be + verb + ing.

You were running very fast. You weren’t running very fast.
Andy was listening to the radio. Andy wasn’t watching television.

3. The question is formed with the past simple of be + subject + verb + ing.

Was James running? Yes, he was. / No, he wasn’t.
Were your parents having lunch? Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t.
What were you studying?
Why was she crying?

Past continuous vs. past simple

1. When we talk about the past, we use the past simple for actions that happened at one particular time. We use the past continuous for background actions.

When my friend arrived, I was having lunch. He was cycling very fast and he had an accident. What did you say? I wasn’t listening.

2. We often use when with the past simple, and while with the past continuous.

I was sleeping when the phone rang. While Jack was washing the dishes, he dropped a plate.

Unit 2

Comparative and superlative adjectives

1. When we want to compare two things, or two groups of things, we use a comparative form + than. I’m taller than my father.

DVDs are more expensive than CDs.
His watch is better than mine.

2. With short adjectives, we normally add er.

cold — colder long — longer clever — cleverer

If the adjective ends in e, we add only r. white — whiter safe — safer

If the adjective ends with consonant + y, we change the y to i and add er.

easy — easier
early — earlier
happy — happier

If the adjective ends in one vowel + one consonant, we double the final consonant and add er.
big — bigger
fat — fatter
slim — slimmer

3. With longer adjectives (more than two syllables), we don’t change the adjective — we put more in front of it.

expensive — more expensive
boring — more boring

4. Some adjectives have a different comparative form.

good — better
bad — worse
far — further

5. We can modify the comparison, by using much/far, a lot or a little / a bit. These words come before the normal comparison.

This film is much better than the book.
His pronunciation is far worse than mine.
We walked a bit further than last week.

Adverbs

1. We use adverbs to describe verbs — they say how an action is or was performed.

She smiled happily. Drive slowly. We got- to school late.

We can also use adverbs before adjectives.

It was bitterly cold yesterday. The sea was beautifully warm, so we went swimming.

2. Most adverbs are formed by adjective + ly.

quiet — quietly
bad — badly

If the adjective ends in le, we drop the e and add y.

terrible — terribly
comfortable — comfortably

If the adjective ends in consonant + y, we change the y to i and add ly.

easy — easily
happy — happily
lucky — luckily

3. Some adverbs are irregular — they don’t have an ly ending.

good — well
fast — fast
hard — hard
early — early
late — late

Comparison of adverbs

1. To compare adverbs, we use the same rules as we do when we compare adjectives. With short adverbs, we add er or r, and than after the adverb.

I was late for school, but my brother was later than me!

2. With longer adverbs, we use more (adverb) + than. I ran more quickly than the others.

3. To compare the adverb well, we use better . than. To compare the adverb far, we use further than.

Steve plays tennis better than me. My school is further from my house than the park.

Unit 3

will/won’t, or might/may (not) for prediction

1. We can use the modal verb will (‘II) or will not (won’t) to make predictions about the future.

Don’t worry about the exam next week — it won’t be difficult.

2. We use might/might not (mightn’t) or may/may not to make less certain predictions about the future.

I’m not sure, but I think I might go to university when I leave school.

3. Like all modal verbs, will/won’t and might/might not and may/may not are followed by the base form of the main verb, and the form is the same for all subjects.

I think it’ll be a nice day tomorrow. (NOT I think it’ll to be a nice day tomorrow.)

My brother might go to live in the USA. (NOT My brother might to go to live in the USA.) She may not pass her driving test.

4. We make questions with will by putting the subject after the modal verb. Will we have a test next week?

First conditional

1. We often make conditional sentences by using If + subject + present simple in the if clause, and will/won’t / might/might not in the main clause.

If we have time, we’ll do some shopping at the supermarket.
I might go out tonight if there’s nothing good on TV.

2. We can also use the word unless in conditional sentences — it means if. not.

Unless the teacher explains, we won’t know what to do. (= If the teacher doesn’t explain, we won’t know what to do.)
James won’t know unless you tell him. (= James won’t know if you don’t tell him.)

3. There are two clauses in these sentences. We can put the main clause first, or the if/unless clause first. When the if/unless clause comes first, there is a comma after it.

Unless the teacher explains, we won’t know what to do.
We won’t know what to do unless the teacher explains.

(Return to Top)

Year 8 Quarter 2 Exam Units 4-6

Unit 4

Question tags

1. Question tags are positive or negative questions at the end of statements. We add ‘tags’ to the end of statements:

a) when we are not sure that what we are saying is correct, and we want the other person to say if we are correct or not.

b) when we are sure that what we are saying is correct, and we want the other person to say something about it.

2. Tags in (a) above have a rising intonation pattern.

A: You’re French, aren’t you? B: No, I’m not. I’m Swiss.

Tags in (b) above have a falling intonation pattern.

A: You’re French, aren’t you? B: That’s right. I’m from Marseilles.

3. With positive statements, we usually use a negative question tag.

I’m late, aren’t I? He’s lazy, isn’t he?

With negative statements, we usually use a positive question tag.

I’m not late, am I? He isn’t lazy, is he?

Present perfect

1. We use the present perfect (present tense of have + past participle) to talk about a present situation, and the events in the past that are connected to the present situation.

The teacher’s angry because we haven’t done our homework. I’ve eaten too much food, and I feel ill.

2. There is an important difference between have gone and have been.

My friend Sarah has been to Cuba on holiday. (= Sarah went to Cuba, and she has come back again.)
My friend Sarah has gone to Cuba on holiday (= Sarah went to Cuba, and she is still there.)

Present perfect + already/yet/just

1. We often use the words already and yet with the present perfect. We use already in positive sentences, and yet in negative sentences and in questions. The word already usually comes between have and the past participle. The word yet usually comes at the end of the sentence or question.

I don’t want to watch the film on TV tonight — I’ve already seen it.
I started this work two hours ago, but I haven’t finished it yet.

2. When we use the word just with the present perfect, it means ‘not very long ago’. Like already, it is usually placed between have and the past participle.

I’ve just heard that my favourite band has released a new CD — great!
Do you want a piece of cake? My mother’s just made it.

Unit 5

Present simple passive

1. We use the passive when it isn’t important who does the action, or when we don’t know who does it.

These watches are made in Switzerland. (We don’t know who makes them.)
Jeans are made of denim. (It isn’t important who makes them.)

2. To form the present simple passive, we use the present simple tense of the verb to be + the past participle of the main verb.

Football is played in many countries. The animals in the zoo are fed every morning.

let and be allowed to

1. We use be allowed to to say that you do (or don’t) have permission to do something.

At my school, we are allowed to wear jeans.
You aren’t allowed to smoke in restaurants in New York.

2. We use let to say that someone gives you, or doesn’t give you, permission to do something.

I let my brother borrow my bicycle sometimes.
Our teacher didn’t let us use dictionaries in the test.

3. Both let and be allowed to are followed by the infinitive.

I’m not allowed to watch the late-night film.
My dad didn’t let me watch the late-night film.

4. With let, the structure is let + person + bare infinitive (without to).

She didn’t let me answer the question.
I’m not going to let you borrow my CD player.

Unit 6

Present perfect with for and since

1. We can use the present perfect to talk about something that began in the past and continues to be true in the present.

I have lived here for ten years. (= I started living here ten years ago, and I still live here.)

2. We talk about the time between when something started and now with for or since.

We use the word for when we mention a period of time from the past until now.

for an hour, for two years, for a long time

We use the word since when we mention a point in time in the past.

since ten o’clock, since 7992, since last Saturday.

(Return to Top)

Year 8 Quarter 3 Midterm Units 7-8

Unit 7

Past simple passive

1. We form the past simple passive with the past simple of the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb.

The car was destroyed in the accident, and two people were injured.

2. We use the passive when it isn’t important who does the action, or when we don’t know who does it (see Unit 6).

3. Sometimes when we use the passive (present or past), we want to say who or what did the action. To do this, we use the word by + noun.

A lot of mistakes are made by students.
He was arrested by the police.

a(n) and the

1. We use a or an (the indefinite articles) when we are talking about something for the first time.

I gave my sister a DVD for her birthday.
I usually eat an apple for breakfast.

We also use a/an with a noun when we are talking about something in general, and not a special example of something.

I think it’s nicer to live in a house than in a flat.
Let’s go and have an ice cream.

2. We use the (the definite article) with a noun when it is clear which thing or person we are talking about. Sometimes this is when we talk about something for the second time.

I took a photograph of my sister, but the photograph was awful!

Sometimes it is because there is only one of the thing we are talking about.

The sun is really hot today. (= There is only one sun.)

Sometimes it is because the person we are talking to already knows which thing we mean.

Can I use the computer now? (= The listener knows which computer you are talking about.)

3. We also use the when we talk about certain things in general, for example, the cinema, the telephone, the internet.

I really like going to the cinema. (= the cinema as a general place, not a particular cinema)

Unit 8

too many/much, not enough

1. too many and too much are phrases that we use to say that there is more of something than is wanted.

I’ve got too many CDs. (= I don’t have a place to put all the CDs that I’ve got.)

2. We use too many before plural countable nouns.

There are too many cars on the streets.
I think we get too many tests.

3. We use too much before uncountable nouns.

Don’t put too much water on the plants.
Don’t spend too much money in that shop.

4. not enough is the opposite of too much / too many. We use this phrase to say that more is needed.

There aren’t enough people here to play a football match. (= We need more people.)

5. not enough is used with plural countable nouns, or with uncountable nouns. We put not with the verb, and enough before the noun.

will vs. going to

1. We can use be going to or will to talk about the future, but there is some difference in the meanings that they have.

2. We use be going to when we talk about something in the future which is a result of what we can see now, or that we know now.

Look at those black clouds in the sky! It’s going to rain.

3. We use be going to when we talk about our (or other people’s) intentions and plans for the future.
We’re going to play volleyball this afternoon. (= We’ve already decided to do this.)

4. We often use will when we decide to do something at the moment of speaking.

I’m bored — I think I’ll go for a walk.

(Return to Top)

Year 8 Quarter 4 Exam Units 9-10

Unit 9

everyone / no one, etc.

1. We can use the words every/some/no together with one/thing/where to make compound nouns.

2. These words mean:

everyone = all the people
someone = a person, but we don’t know who
no one = none of the people
everything = all the things
something = a thing, but we don’t know which
nothing = none of the things
everywhere = all the places
somewhere = a place, but we don’t know where
nowhere = none of the places

3. These words are all singular.

Something’s wrong.
No one’s perfect.
Nothing was found.
Everywhere was full.
Someone has taken my pen.

4. We don’t use negatives with nothing and no one. We use anything or anyone instead.

I don’t know anyone here. NOT: I don’t know no one here.

5. With other nouns and pronouns, we use all of / some of / none of + plural or uncountable noun/pronoun.

All of the CDs are mine.
Some of the teachers are really nice.
None of my friends came to my party.

must/mustn’t vs. don’t have to

1. mustn’t is the negative of must. We use mustn’t to say that something is the wrong thing to do, or when we give someone an obligation not to do something.

Teacher: Be quiet! You mustn’t talk in the lessons!

2. don’t/doesn’t have to is the negative of have to. We use don’t/doesn’t have to to say that something is not necessary.

I love Sundays because I don’t have to get up early.

Unit 10

Present perfect continuous

1. The present perfect continuous is formed with the present tense of have + been + the ing form of the verb. I’ve been waiting for two hours. It’s been raining since last weekend.

2. Sentences with the present perfect always connect the present and the past. We often use the present perfect continuous to talk about situations which started in the past and are still continuing now.

I’ve been waiting for two hours. (= I started waiting two hours ago, and I am still waiting.)

3. We also use the present perfect continuous to talk about actions with a result in the present. These actions may or may not be complete.

I’m tired because I’ve been working hard.

4. We also use the present perfect continuous to talk about actions which began in the past and continue to the present, but perhaps we are not doing the action at the time of speaking.

I’ve been learning English for two years. (= I started learning two years ago, and I am still learning, but I’m not learning at this moment.)

Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous

1. We use the present perfect simple to show that an action is finished, or to focus on what we have completed in a period of time.

I’ve written a letter. I’ve written three letters this morning.

2. We use the present perfect continuous to show that an action is still going on, or to focus on how long something has been in progress.

I’ve been reading this book for two hours. I’ve been reading detective stories for years.

3. There are some verbs which cannot usually be used in the continuous. These verbs often express a permanent state. For example, know, understand, have (for possession), like, hate. For these verbs we use the present perfect simple (see also Unit 1 present simple and present continuous).

She’s known her teacher since she was in the first class. (NOT She’s been knowing .)

2. The question is formed with What + be + subject + like? The word like doesn’t change — it is quite different from the verb like.

What’s the weather like today? What was the film like last night?
What are those cakes like? Did you meet Helen’s cousins? What were they like?

(Return to Top)

Year 9 Quarter 1 Midterm Units 1-3

Unit 1

Past simple vs. present perfect simple

1. We use the past simple to talk about complete events which are finished, or before ‘now’, the moment of speaking. I called you yesterday. Where were you?

We didn’t have computers when I was born.

2. We use the present perfect simple to connect the past and ‘now’, the moment of speaking. We’ve called you three times today. Where have you been?

We’ve lived in the same house all our lives.

3. Use the past simple with minutes ago, yesterday, last week, when I was . etc.

We often use for, since, just, already, yet, ever and never with the present perfect.

They went out a few minutes ago. They’ve just left.
I saw that film yesterday. I’ve already seen that film.
I met her boyfriend last weekend. I’ve never met your girlfriend.
We moved there when I was young. We’ve lived there since I was a child.

Time expressions

1. We use just before the past participle to say that something happened a short time ago. We’ve just arrived. They’ve just gone out.

2. We use already at the end of the sentence or before the past participle to express surprise or emphasise that something happened.

Have you finished already? We’ve already seen this film.

3. We use yet at the end of negative sentences to emphasise that something didn’t happen (but probably will in the future), and at the end of questions.

I haven’t started this exercise yet. (but I will) Have you met my new boyfriend yet?

4. We use still before haven’t in negative sentences, or before not in questions, to show surprise that something you expected to happen didn’t happen.

I can’t believe you still haven’t said sorry. Has she still not told you the truth?

Unit 2

Past simple vs. past continuous

1. We use the past simple to talk about actions that happened at one moment in time in the past. We use the past continuous to describe the background actions in progress around that time in the past.

I was playing football. (background) I broke my leg. (action)
We were having a picnic. (background) It started to rain. (action)
What were you doing? (background) I called you. (action)

2. It is common to use when with the past simple to introduce the past action, or while with the past continuous to introduce the background.

I broke my leg while I was playing football.
We were having a picnic when it started to rain.
What were you doing when I called you?

Time conjunctions: as / then / as soon as

Other time words that we use with the past simple are then and as soon as. We can also use as with the same meaning as while.

As soon as I got home, I turned on the TV for the big game.
The picture came on, then I learned the bad news.
Someone scored as I was making a sandwich.

Past simple vs. past perfect

1. We use the past simple to talk about an event that happened at a specific time in the past.

We use the past perfect when we need to emphasise that one event happened before another.

The match had started when we got there.

When I got to the street I realised I hadn’t brought his address with me. How long had you been there when they finally arrived?

2. Sometimes it is necessary to use the past perfect to make the meaning clear. She’d left when I got there. (I didn’t see her.)

She left when I got there. (but I saw her.)

3. It is not necessary to use the past perfect when before or after is used. She left before I got there.

Unit 3

Present perfect simple vs. present perfect continuous

1. We use the present perfect simple to emphasise the result or completion of an activity. I’ve copied that CD you asked me for. Here it is.

I’ve bought everybody’s presents. Aren’t I organised!

We use the present perfect continuous to emphasise the activity, not the result or completion of the activity (it may not be finished).

I’ve been copying CD’s all morning. Great fun!
I’ve been shopping for presents. That’s why I wasn’t here.

2. We use the present perfect simple to emphasise ‘how many’.

I’ve done ten exercises this morning. You’ve had three pieces of cake already!
How many sandwiches have you made?

We use the present perfect continuous to emphasise ‘how long’.

I’ve been doing exercises for hours. You’ve been eating cake since you got here!
How long have you been making sandwiches?

had better / should / ought to

We use should or ought to to give advice, or say what we think is a good (or bad) idea. They have the same meaning. Remember, should is a modal verb, and is used without to. We use had better to give stronger advice or warnings. The form is always past (never have better), but the meaning is present. Had better is also used without to.

You should take a rest. You shouldn’t worry so much.
She ought to be more careful. She ought not to be so pessimistic.
He’d better start doing some work. He’d better not come near me.

(Return to Top)

 Year 9 Quarter 2 Exam Units 4-6

Unit 4

Future predictions

100% = probability will
75% = will probably is likely to
50% = might / might not
25% = probably won’t isn’t likely to
0% = probability won’t

When we make predictions about the future, we can use will, might and be likely to (and their negative forms) to show how sure we are about the chances of something happening.

My parents will be really angry when I get home tonight. (100% sure)
My father will probably / is likely to shout at me.
They might not let me go out again next weekend.
My brother probably won’t / isn’t likely to help me.
But next weekend, my parents won’t remember what happened!

First conditional with if and unless

In first conditional sentences:

a. both verbs refer to actions or events in the future;
b. the verb tense after the words if or unless is present simple;
c. the verb tense in the other clause is will or won’t;
d. we can use if or unless (which means ‘if not’);
e. when we use unless, the verb that follows is in the positive.

If my friends visit me (tomorrow), we’ll go out for lunch.
I’ll take them to the Chinese restaurant, unless they want to eat pizza. (= . if they don’t want to eat pizza.)
Unless my parents give me some money, I won’t be able to pay (= If my parents don’t give me some money.)

Unit 5

make / let / be allowed to

1. We use make [someone do] to talk about an obligation.

Our teacher makes us do a lot of homework. (= We cannot choose, it’s an obligation that our teacher gives us.)
My older brother made me lend him some money (= I could not choose, my brother forced me.)

2. We use let [someone do] to talk about permission.

Our teacher lets us leave early on Fridays. (= The teacher gives us permission to leave early.) My father let me use the car yesterday (= My father gave me permission to use the car.)

3. We use be allowed to [do something] to say that someone has (or has not) got permission.

At our school, we’re allowed to wear jeans if we want to.
When we were young, we weren’t allowed to play outside in the street.

Modals of obligation, prohibition and permission

1. have to / don’t have to is used to talk about obligation / no obligation.

We don’t have to wear school uniform. (= Wearing school uniform is not an obligation for us.) We didn’t have to pay for the meal. (= It was not necessary to pay)

2. can / can’t is used to talk about permission.

You can watch TV if you want to. (= I give you permission to watch TV) We can’t go in because we’re not 18. (= We don’t have permission to go in.)

3. We use mustn’t to prohibit someone from doing something, or to say that something is very important.

We mustn’t be late! (= It is very important for us not to be late.)
You mustn’t talk to me like that! (= I am telling you that I don’t allow this.)

Unit 6

Present and past passive review

We form the passive with a form of the verb to be + the past participle of the main verb.

English is spoken all over the world.
My bike was stolen last night.

Causative have (have something done)

We use have something done when we talk about a service or function that someone else does for us.

I had my hair cut last week. (= I went to a hairdresser and a person cut my hair.)
We’ve had our car repaired. (= We’ve taken our car to a garage and someone has repaired it for us.)

Present perfect passive

We form the present perfect passive with have/has been + past participle.

Our old house isn’t there any more — it’s been pulled down.
The rules of tennis haven’t been changed for a long time.

Future passive

We form the future passive with will be / won’t be + past participle. Those trees will be cut down next month.

If you don’t behave properly, you won’t be invited again!

(Return to Top)

Year 9 Quarter 3 Units 7-8

Unit 7

Gerunds and infinitives

1. When a verb is followed by another verb, the second verb is either in the gerund (-ing) or infinitive form. The form of the second verb depends on the first verb.

2. Some verbs (e.g. enjoy, detest, (don’t) mind, imagine, feel like, suggest, practise, miss) are followed by a verb in the gerund form.

I don’t enjoy living in the city very much.
She doesn’t feel like going out tonight.

3. Other verbs (e.g. hope, promise, ask, learn, expect, decide, afford, offer, choose) are followed by a verb in the infinitive form.

We can’t afford to go on holiday this year. I promise to pay you on Monday.

Verbs with gerunds or infinitives

1. Some verbs (e.g. remember, stop, try) can be followed by a second verb in either the gerund or infinitive form. The form of the second verb depends on the meaning of the sentence.

I remember going to my first football match with my dad. (= I remember the occasion.)
I remembered to go to the stadium and buy the tickets. (= I promised my son I would buy the tickets and I didn’t forget to do this.)
I stopped to watch the news headlines. (= I was doing something (my homework / talking to my parents) when the news started. I stopped the first activity because I wanted to watch the headlines.)
I stopped watching TV and went to bed. (= I was watching TV. I was tired so I turned off the TV and went to bed.)

2. Some verbs (e.g. like, love, hate, prefer, begin, start) can be followed by gerund or infinitive with no difference in meaning.

We began to run when it started raining.
We began running when it started to rain.

Unit 8

Second conditional

1. When we want to talk about imaginary actions and their consequences, we use the second conditional.

2. The second conditional has two clauses; ‘if + the past tense’ to introduce the hypothetical situation and ‘would / could / might + verb’ to talk about the imaginary result.

If I had more time, I would learn the guitar.

3. The clauses can be put the other way around. In this case we don’t use a comma.

She would be the best student if she worked harder.

4. Other ways of saying if in a second conditional include what if suppose, imagine and say.

What if you won the lottery? Would you be happy?
Suppose you could live forever. Would you want to?
Imagine you knew your brother was a burglar. Would you tell the police?
Say you could live anywhere. Where would you choose?

wish / if only

1. When we want to talk about how we would like our present life to be different, we can use wish or if only + past simple.

2. Although we are talking about our present situation, wish / if only are followed by the past tense.

I wish I didn’t have so much homework.
Dave wishes he had a girlfriend.

3. We use wish / if only + could when we want to talk about having the ability or permission to do something.

I wish I could play the guitar.
Sally wishes she could go to the party.

(Return to Top)

 Year 9 Quarter 4 Exam Units 9-10

Unit 9

Linkers of contrast: however / although / even though / in spite of / despite

1. Despite and in spite of are followed by a noun or verb in the gerund form.

Despite being very rich, he’s not happy.
In spite of his wealth, he’s not very happy

2. Although and even though are followed by a clause.

Although they played badly, they still won.
Even though he’s lived in Paris for three years, he doesn’t speak French.

3. However always starts a new sentence.

I don’t usually like action films. However, I really enjoyed Troy.

Modals of deduction (present)

1. When we are sure something is true, we use must.

She got ten Valentine cards. She must be popular.

2. When we are sure something is not true, we use can’t.

He’s failed the driving test five times. He can’t be a very good driver.

3. When we think there is a possibility something is true, we use might or could.

They’re speaking Spanish so they might be Mexican.
They could be brother and sister. They look quite similar.

Unit 10

Modals of deduction (past)

To make a guess about a past situation, we can use the modal verbs can’t, must, might and could with the present perfect tense.

You were all alone in the house. You must have been really scared.
I’m not sure how the vase got broken but it might have been the dog.
Police believe that the criminal could have left the country.
It can’t have been my husband. He was at home with me all last night.

Indirect questions

1. After expressions like I don’t understand ., I wonder ., I want to know . and I don’t know . we often find question words. However, what comes after the question word is not a question, and does not follow the word order for questions.

I wonder why she said that. (NOT: I wonder why did she say that.)
I don’t know when we’ll arrive. (NOT: I don’t know when will we arrive.)
I want to know where you’re going. (NOT: I want to know where are you going.)

2. If we want to ask less direct questions, we can use an expression such as Can you tell me…? Do you happen to know…? and Do you know…? This is the question, so what comes after these expressions does not follow the word order for questions.

Can you tell me where the toilets are? (NOT Can you tell me where are the toilets?)
Do you happen to know if he’s French? (NOT Do you happen to know is he French?)
Do you know why she left early? (NOT Do you know why did she leave early?)

(Return to Top)